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雅思寫作高分之多角度把握雙邊討論型議論文

摘要:專家解讀:多角度把握雙邊討論型議論文,給你一個滿意的寫作分數!
雙邊討論型議論文題型認知
 
雙邊討論型議論文的題目主要由兩部分構成,題目背景和問題,有時,題目中還有對文章展開方式的要求。其中題目背景通常是以兩個對立的觀點,或是對同一問題的不同看法的形式給出。經典的提問方式為:Discuss both views and give your own opinion? 例如:
Some people think that computers and the Internet are more important for a child's education than going to school. But others believe that schools and teachers are essential for children to learn effectively.
Discuss both views and give your own opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
在上例中,題目背景中包含了兩個觀點,一個是Computers and the Internet are more important for a child's education than going to school(A方觀點);另一個是Schools and teachers are essential for children to learn effectively(B方觀點)。兩個觀點爭論的焦點在于:是計算機和因特網,還是學校和老師在孩子的教育中更重要?
 
題目中的Discuss both views and give your own opinion. 是題目的提問方式,潛在要求考生在作文時既要討論A方觀點,也要討論B方觀點,二者缺一不可;同時也要求考生要給出自己的立場。
 
題目中的Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 是對文章展開方式的要求,其中兩個關鍵詞是reasons和examples.
 
又如:
Some people believe that teenagers should concentrate on all school subjects. But, others believe that teenagers should focus on the subject that they are best at or that they find the most interest.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
 
雙邊討論型議論文的整體結構
 
雙邊討論型議論文通常是由一個首段,若干主體段(通常為兩個或者是三個)以及一個結論段構成。每一個段落各司其職但又相互關聯,段落與段落之間,相對獨立,卻也渾然一體。正如雅思大作文第一項評分標準(Task Response)要求的一樣,“應題”其中的一項就是全面、正確,到位地回答了題目提出的問題。在雙邊討論型議論文中,題目要求考生回答三個問題,即討論一方觀點,討論另一方觀點及給出自己立場。這三個任務,在我們的文章中都是必須要完成的,漏掉任何一個,或是任何一個完成的不到位,都會造成很嚴重的失分點。題目中給出的雙方觀點,通常會放在主體段中去進行展開論證,自己的立場,通常是在結論段中給出(當然也可首段中表明,在結論段中升華)??忌仨毭鞔_的是無論怎樣去安排段落,各個段落的服務對象只有一個,那就是作為結論的作者自己的立場!對于雙邊討論型的文章,作者的立場有如下幾種可能性:
★非A即B型:在題目給定的兩個觀點中任選其一作為自己的立場。如:
Some people think museums should be enjoyable places to attract and entertain young people. But others think the purpose of museums is to educate, not to entertain. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
 
在本題中,考生的立場既可以是認為博物館就是用來吸引和娛樂年輕人的;也可以認為博物館是用來教育年輕人的。但是考生需謹記,無論持什么樣的立場,主體段的安排要為自己的立場而服務。
 
★亦A亦B型:對于部分題型,考生可采用此種立場。如:
Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. However, others argue that school is the place to learn this.
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
 
在本題中,考生的立場既可以認為是父母應該把孩子培養成為一個好的社會成員,也可以認為學校應該承擔這個責任,這樣的話,那我們采用的就是非A即B的立場,即自己的立場與題目當中其中一方的一致。當然也可以認為父母和學校聯手,培養效果更佳?;蛘?,從理論上講,也可以是父母和學校都做不到這一點,只有孩子自己才能才能決定自己成為好的社會成員(非A非B,提出第三方觀點作為自己的立場)。
 
值得我們注意的是,當作者采取了不同的立場(非A即B,或亦A亦B),主體段的內容和結構也要做出相應的調整,從而更好地為作者自己的立場而服務,更合理地支持作者所持的觀點。在下一小結,我們具體分析主體段的安排原則。
 
雙邊討論型議論文的結構說明
 
正如上文談到的,在雙邊討論型議論文中,各個段落各司其職,無論我們采取什么樣的結尾方式,但基本的文章結構都是如下幾種可能的:
四段式結構:
 
1.jpg
 
 
 
 
或者,我們可以采取五段式結構完成作文,如下圖:
 
 
 
2.jpg
 
 
 
 
或者:
 
3.jpg
當我們采用四段式模式,并采取非A即B的結尾方式時,我們應該注意,在兩個主體段對A, B觀點進行展開的時候,這兩段的關系一定是讓步轉折關系!即強化我們支持的觀點,弱化我們不支持的觀點。我們可以從段落篇幅,段落間的邏輯以及段落的內容上多管齊下完成這個任務。如:在篇幅上,支持的觀點多寫,不支持的觀點少些,段落間邏輯上不支持的觀點以讓步方式完成,支持的觀點以轉折的方式完成,在段落的內容上,通過一些修飾限定詞的使用達到弱化不支持的觀點和強化支持的觀點的目的。詳見下文:
 
Some people think that environmental problems are too big for individuals to deal with. Others, however, think that each individual should take some actions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
 
It is true that environmental problems have troubled human being for many years, and both government and individual never give up the effort in coping with them. However, some people hold the views that tiny individual actions often seem insignificant in dealing with the scale and complexity of global environmental problems while others voice differently, arguing that each individual should make contribution to the improvement of environment. From my perspective, the arduous task of protecting environment does not relieve our duty as individuals to do as much as we can to settle down these problems.
 
Admittedly, there are obstacles that stand in the way of individual action towards environmental conservation.The first obstacle is the lack of professional knowledge needed to cope with serious environmental issues like soil erosion and salinity, which require a significant amount of investigation and research. Another obstacle which makes individual action almost impossible is when an environmental emergency or accident happens, e.g. an oil spill near the border line, which would necessitate government intervention or even international coordination.
 
However, individual actions, small as they may be, can prove more effective than we realize. We can avoid driving the car, and take public transit, walk, or bicycle instead. This will reduce the use of fossil fuels and cut pollution. Saving energy at home, like turning on the air conditioner only when we have to, or turning water heater down a few degrees, is also ultimately good for the environment. Individual actions can also turn into united powers when, for example, the whole neighborhood is mobilized to participate in a local campaign to oppose environmentally damaging policies.
 
So, in conclusion, when it comes to environmental problems, individual actions are indispensable in the problem solving process.
 
在上文中,我們通過Admittedly, there are obstacles that stand in the way of individual action towards environmental conservation.However, individual actions, small as they may be, can prove more effective than we realize.兩個主題句,完美構建了兩個主體段之間的關系,即前段為輕,后段為重的關系。這兩個主題句中包含了體現這種關系的詞匯和表述方式,如:前段中的Admittedly和后段中的However。
 
當然,我們在寫作過程中,可以對這兩個主體段的順序進行顛倒,做“前重后輕”的段落安排,這對寫作效果沒有什么影響。
 
但如果我們的結論是亦A亦B型,及“政府和個人都應當承擔保護環境的職責”,那么,我們對兩個主題段的安排就無所謂“輕重之分”了。此時,他們間的關系是“對等并列”關系,這樣才能夠體現出結論中我們觀點的中和性,也體現了主體段的安排為文章結論服務的宗旨。請分析下文:
Some people think that environmental problems are too big for individuals to deal with. Others, however, think that each individual should take some actions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
 
It is true that environmental problems have troubled human being for many years, and both government and individual never give up the effort in coping with them. However, some people hold the views that tiny individual actions often seem insignificant in dealing with the scale and complexity of global environmental problems while others voice differently, arguing that each individual should make contribution to the improvement of environment. From my perspective, the arduous task of protecting environment does not relieve our duty as individuals to do as much as we can to settle down these problems.
 
Those who believe that there are obstacles that stand in the way of individual action towards environmental conservation hold following views.The first obstacle is the lack of professional knowledge needed to cope with serious environmental issues like soil erosion and salinity, which require a significant amount of investigation and research. Another obstacle which makes individual action almost impossible is when an environmental emergency or accident happens, e.g. an oil spill near the border line, which would necessitate government intervention or even international coordination.
 
At the same time, there are many people thinking that individual actions, small as they may be, can prove more effective than we realize. We can avoid driving the car, and take public transit, walk, or bicycle instead. This will reduce the use of fossil fuels and cut pollution. Saving energy at home, like turning on the air conditioner only when we have to, or turning water heater down a few degrees, is also ultimately good for the environment. Individual actions can also turn into united powers when, for example, the whole neighborhood is mobilized to participate in a local campaign to oppose environmentally damaging policies.
 
So, in conclusion, when it comes to environmental problems, individual actions are indispensable in the problem solving process. But the most pressing and complicated problems go far beyond an individual’s capability,so require the concerted effort of the government as well as the global community.
 
上文是對于同一個命題的第二種寫作方式,實際上是采取了主體段對等,并在結論中將主體段中討論的兩個不同的觀點的有機結合。我們通過兩個主體段中的主題句間的關系,將兩個段落并列并將之置于同等重要的地位。同時,為亦A亦B型結論打下了結構和內容上的基礎。值得注意的是,在這種結構模式下,兩個主體段的關系不像是非A即B型中的那樣的讓步轉折關系,而是一種對等并列關系,所以,我們在第二主體段開頭用的是諸如 at the same time之類的表示并列關系的過渡詞匯。從而更好地體現兩個段落之間的對等關系,為尾段中的結論奠定基礎。
 
當我們習慣采用五段式模式時,在三個主體段中,其中的兩個段落是針對作者所支持的觀點展開論述的,另外一個主體段是采用讓步的方式針對作者不支持的觀點而論述的;這樣的段落結構安排,本身就是有所側重的,所以,最適合此種結構模式的結論是非A即B型結論。我們將上題該做五段式結構,具體如下:
 
It is true that environmental problems have troubled human being for many years, and both government and individual never give up the effort in coping with them. However, some people hold the views that tiny individual actions often seem insignificant in dealing with the scale and complexity of global environmental problems while others voice differently, arguing that each individual should make contribution to the improvement of environment. From my perspective, the arduous task of protecting environment does not relieve our duty as individuals to do as much as we can to settle down these problems.(論點句)
 
First of all, individual actions, small as they may be, can make contribution to environment protection once the pay much attention to the details of their life. We can avoid driving the car, and take public transit, walk, or bicycle instead. This will reduce the use of fossil fuels and cut pollution. Saving energy at home, like turning on the air conditioner only when we have to, or turning water heater down a few degrees, is also ultimately good for the environment.
 
Further more, Individual actions can also turn into united powers to launch environment-friendly campaignsas well as to oppose environmentally damaging policies. For example, the whole neighborhood is supposed to be mobilized to participate publicity and activities to improve the sense of environment-protecting, and make themselves take the responsibility to be the pioneers of environmental conservation.
 
Admittedly, there are obstacles that stand in the way of individual action towards environmental conservation.The first obstacle is the lack of professional knowledge needed to cope with serious environmental issues like soil erosion and salinity, which require a significant amount of investigation and research. Another obstacle which makes individual action almost impossible is when an environmental emergency or accident happens, e.g. an oil spill near the border line, which would necessitate government intervention or even international coordination.
 
So, in conclusion, when it comes to environmental problems, individual actions are indispensable in the problem solving process, and everyone should spare no effort to devote themselves into the environment-oriented actions and be obliged to what they have done.
 
在上文中,First of allFurther more為并列關系,用兩個段落的篇幅闡述了作者所支持的觀點,而以Admittedly所開啟的段落,與前面兩個段落是讓步關系,闡述的是作者所不支持的觀點,這樣,輕重之分就非常地明顯,那么,得出文章中的結論也就是順理成章的事情了,這也吻合了主體段為尾段中的結論而服務的寫作宗旨。

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