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雅思閱讀高分之如何準確抓取文章重要細節

摘要:我們都知道快速獲取文章主旨和段落大意的最直接方法是閱讀文章首段和每段首二句,但是想提高我們的閱讀理解能力及做題正確率,僅僅有這些信息是不足矣的。

我們都知道快速獲取文章主旨和段落大意的最直接方法是閱讀文章首段和每段首二句,但是想提高我們的閱讀理解能力及做題正確率,僅僅有這些信息是不足矣的。

我們在閱讀文章時會發現,作者在點明主旨后會在后面的闡述中進一步細說論據,而這些就是考題中常常涉及的細節內容,這也正是考生最頭疼的地方,即在這繁雜的信息中,如何準確把握作者想要表達的重點。

我們知道雅思閱讀以說明文為主,多是肯定、客觀的表達方式。因此,作者在陳述重點內容時勢必會用到特殊的表達方式。下面,我們就集中講解下作者會用到哪些特殊句式。

1. 轉折:轉折詞匯后面的內容往往是作者想要表達的重點。試想,我們在評論了別人的表現時,若說了一個“但是”,那后面的內容是否是最引起聽者興趣的地方?同理,雅思閱讀中亦然。常見的轉折詞匯有:but、however、despite、in spite of、although、though、yet(用語句首,表示盡管、雖然之意)、while(有盡管之意,不多見,同學們應注意)等。

2. 否定:否定句在雅思閱讀的說明文體中并不多見,因此,否定句、雙重否定句是闡述重點內容的一個重點句式。

3. 因果:因果邏輯是雅思文章中最常見也是最重要的邏輯關系之一。因此,這是把握重要細節內容的重點之一。相關詞匯有:because、so、since(表原因)、as(表原因)、lead to、cause、result in、as a result of、as a result、therefore等。

4. 強調句式:it is...that/who/why...及 What 引導的主語從句,如 what makes it bad is...,what we need is... 這樣的句式本身就有強調的含義,因此作者使用這種句式時一定在重點說明某些內容。

5. 步驟:步驟的描述很多情況下也是設置考點的地方。在進行步驟描述時常會用到firstly、secondly等序數詞(注意:initially是最初的意思,常同first互換);除序數詞外,也會用到next、then、finally等詞。同時,應注意表示步驟的詞匯有process、procedure、stage等詞。

6. 比較:比較也是重點內容之一,比較無非對比不同與相似,表達不同的詞匯有:different、distinction、differ等;表達相似的詞匯有:similarity、resemble、similar、resemblance、like(像的意思)等。另外,表達比較時,常會用到: compare、compared with、in comparison、by contrast、on contrary等。

7. 絕對性說法:因為雅思閱讀的闡述方式是客觀,因此一旦出現絕對性的說法,很有可能會是考點。常見的絕對性詞匯有:never、only(sole、alone常與這詞互換)、must、mustn’t、always等。

8. 定義式和結論性表述:所謂定義式表述就是作者在給出定義、闡述常識和某些真理時用到的表達方式;結論性表述是指作者在描述完某些項目或實驗研究等后,得出的結論性東西,常用到的詞匯有:therefore、conclude、in conclusion、the key for...is...等。

以上8點是作者在闡述重點內容時會用到的特殊句式,考生在平時做題及考試中可參考這些方面,幫助自己準確把握重點信息。

此外,雅思閱讀還有一個“設鋪墊”的特點,即作者在表達某一重點內容前會說些不重點的內容,通過與其或某些連接詞來為后面的key point做伏筆,常用到的連詞多是轉折、遞進的詞匯。這一點,考生在閱讀時也應注意。

我們以下面這篇文章為例

Lost for words

Many minority languages are on the danger list

In the Native American Navajo nation which sprawls across four states in the American south-west, the native language is dying. Most of its speakers are middle-age or elderly. Although many students take classes in Navajo, the schools are run in English. Street sign, supermarket goods and even their own newspaper are all in English. Not surprisingly, linguists doubt that any native speakers of Navajo will remain in a hundred years’ time.

Navajo is far from alone. Half the world’s 6,800 languages are likely to vanish within two generations - that’s one language lost every ten days. Never before has the planet’s linguistic diversity shrunk at such a pace. “At the moment, we are heading for about three or four languages dominating the world”, says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Reading. “It’s a mass extinction, and whether we will ever rebound from the lost is difficult to know.

Isolation breeds linguistic diversity as a result, the world is peppered with languages spoken by only a few people. Only 250 language have more than a million speaker, and at least 3,000 have fewer than 2,500. It is not necessarily these small languages that are about to disappear. Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150,000 speakers. What makes a language endangered is not that the number of speakers, but how old they are. If it is spoken by children it is relatively safe. The critically endangered languages are those that are only spoken by the elderly, according to Michael Krauss, director of the Alassk Native Language Center, in Fairblanks.

Why do people reject the language of their parent? It begins with a crisis of confidence, when a small community find itself alongside a larger, wealthier society, says Nicholas Ostler of Britain’s Foundation for Endangered Languages, in Bath. ‘People lose faith in their culture’ he say. ‘When the next generation reaches their teens, they might not want to be induced into the old tradition.’

The change is not always voluntary. Quite often, governments try to kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in school, all to promote national unity. The former US policy of running Indian reservation in English, for example, effectively put languages such as Navajo on the danger list. But Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics Department at the University of Chicago, argues that the deadliest weapon is not government policy but economic globalisation. ‘Native Americans have not lost pride in their language, but they have had to adapt to socioeconomic pressures’ he say. ‘They cannot refuse to speak English if most commercial activity is in English". But are languages worth saving? At the very least, there is a loss of data for the study of languages and their evolution, which relies on comparisons between languages, both living and dead. When an unwritten and unrecorded language disappears, it is lost to science.

Language is also intimately bond up with culture, so it may be difficult to reserve one without the other. ‘If a person shifts from Navajo to English, they lose something' Mufwene says. ‘Moreover, the loss of diversity may also deprive us of different ways of looking at the world’ say Pagel. There is mounting evidence that learning a language produces physiological changes in brain. ‘Your brain and mine are difference from the brain of someone, who speaks French, for instance’ Pagel says, and this could affect our thoughts and perceptions. ‘The patterns and connections we make among various concepts may be structured by the linguistic habits of our community.’

So despite linguists’ best efforts, many languages will disappear over the next century. But a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direst predictions from coming true. ‘The key to fostering diversity is for people to learn their ancestral tongue, as well as the dominant language’ says Doug Whalen, founder and president of the Endangered Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. ‘Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism’ he says. In New Zealand, classes for children have slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled interest in the language. A similar approach in Hawaii has produce about 8000 new speakers of Polynesian languages in the past few years. In California, ‘apprentice’ programmes have provided life support to several indigenous languages. Volunteer 'apprentices' pair up with one of the last living speakers of Native American tongue to learn traditional skill such as basket weaving, with instruction exclusively in the endangered language. After about 300 hours of training they are generally sufficiently fluent to transmit the language to next generation. But Mufwene says that preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life by using every day. ‘Preserving a language is more likely preserving fruits in a jar’ he says.

However, preservation can bring a language back from the dead. There are examples of languages that have survived in written form and then been revived by latter generations. But a written form is essential for this, so the mere possibility of revival has led many speakers of endangered languages to develop systems of writing where none existed before.

通過閱讀該段,我們不難發現第三段Isolation breeds linguistic diversity這句話是典型的定義式句式,因此這是一個重要信息。該段中What makes a language endangered is not that the number of speakers, but how old they are. 這個what引導的主語從句表達“不是...而是...”,這是一個重要信號句,同學們應高度重視。

第四段中Why do people reject the language of their parent? It begins with a crisis of confidence, when a small community find itself alongside a larger, wealthier society這是通過自問自答的方式闡述觀點,這是設鋪墊的一種方式,同學們應注意。

第五段中The change is not always voluntary. Quite often, governments try to kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in school, all to promote national unity. 第一句話也是一種設鋪墊的方式,說明改變不都是自愿的,也就暗示著會有其他原因,緊接著下句便進行了說明。這一段中the deadliest weapon is not government policy but economic globalisation.結合了否定及轉折,表達“不是...而是...”,勢必是重點信息句。

第七段中,So despite linguists’ best efforts, many languages will disappear over the next century. But a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direst predictions from coming true. 這句話有despite和but,因此這句話一定是重點。The key to fostering diversity is for people to learn their ancestral tongue, as well as the dominant language. 是定義式句式;Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism是雙重否定句,因此這兩句都是重點句式。

在文章當中進行了這樣的分析后,我們對把握細節信息就清晰明了了許多,對于文章理解也更深入了一步。

在所有題型中,考察細節的題目居多,因此有效提取重要信息是我們在練習閱讀理解時要逐漸培養出的一種能力,當我們在閱讀文章時能夠根據自己的判斷不時眼前一亮,這說明我們距離把握出題者的出題思路就不遠了,而這,也正是我們在集中訓練中需要逐漸養成的一種能力。

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