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雅思閱讀定位關鍵詞解析

摘要:在雅思閱讀中,定位關鍵詞又稱核心詞、keywords. 它們是題目中的單詞,并能代表這道題題目的特點。

  在雅思閱讀中,定位關鍵詞又稱核心詞、keywords. 它們是題目中的單詞,并能代表這道題題目的特點。通過它們能快速定位找到該題目在原文出處。所以,找準定位關鍵詞是幫助我們正確,高效解題的關鍵。那么,究竟什么是關鍵詞呢?在這里,我把關鍵詞keywords定義為以下三種:

  ? 特殊詞匯:題目中出現的數字、大寫、特殊符號、長相怪異的詞。(即眼球詞匯)

  ? 樸素詞匯:簡單、具體的詞

  ? 邏輯詞匯:表示重要的語法結構(并列結構、因果關系、轉折對比、遞進等)。

  注意:邏輯詞匯是雅思閱讀及聽力的一大考點,貫穿于雅思閱讀8大題型的學習。大家要著重掌握學習。

  好的,首先我們可以通過以下兩個例子具體深入了解關鍵詞keywords的定義范圍。

  例1:

  Others feel there is more of a case for the theory. Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. And they are known to have used wooden pulleys, which could have been made strong enough to bear the weight of massive blocks of stone. In addition, there is some physical evidence that the ancient Egyptians were interested in flight. A wooden artefact found on the step pyramid at Saqqara looks uncannily like a modern glider. Although it dates from several hundred years after the building of the pyramids, its sophistication suggests that the Egyptians might have been developing ideas of flight for a long time. And other ancient civilisations certainly knew about kites; as early as 1250 BC, the Chinese were using them to deliver messages and dump flaming debris on their foes.

  毋庸置疑,通過我們Keywords的定義,在以上這段話中: Egyptians, several hundred years , pyramids, 就屬于keywords中的特殊詞匯,即眼球詞匯。 而wind 則屬于keywords中簡單,易懂且具體的樸素詞匯,再如真題當中的“ear, snow, ice”等這些簡單易懂,且在原文中不能被替換的詞都屬于樸素詞匯。

  例2:

  What else might the engineer think of? well, blind humans sometimes seem to have an uncanny sense of obstacles in their path. It has been given the name 'facial vision', because blind people have reported that it feels a bit like the sense of touch, on the face. One report tells of a totally blind boy who could ride his tricycle at good speed round the block near his home, using facial vision. Experiments showed that, in fact, facial vision is nothing to do with touch or the front of the face, although the sensation may be referred to the front of the face, like the referred pain in a phantom limb. The sensation of facial vision, it turns out, really goes in through the ears. Blind people, without even being aware of the fact, are actually using echoes of their own footsteps and of other sounds, to sense the presence of obstacles. Before this was discovered, engineers had already built instruments to exploit the principle, for example to measure the depth of the sea under a ship. After this technique had been invented, it was only a matter of time before weapons designers adapted it for the detection of submarines. Both sides in the Second World War relied heavily on these devices, under such codenames as Asdic (British) and Sonar (American), as well as Radar (American) or RDF (British), which uses radio echoes rather than sound echoes.

  The Sonar and Radar pioneers didn't know it then, but all the world now knows that bats, or rather natural selection working on bats, had perfected the system tens of millions of years earlier, and their 'radar' achieves feats of detection and navigation that would strike an engineer dumb with admiration. It is technically incorrect to talk about bat 'radar', since they do not use radio waves. It is sonar. But the underlying mathematical theories of radar and sonar are very similar, and much of our scientific understanding of the details of what bats are doing has come from applying radar theory to them. The American zoologist Donald Griffin, who was largely responsible for the discovery of sonar in bats, coined the term 'echolocation' to cover both sonar and radar, whether used by animals or by human instruments.

  在例2這兩段真題原文中, 'facial vision', Second World War, The Sonar and Radar,Donald Griffin, 及帶引號的 'echolocation' t都屬于特殊詞匯。而像as well as,or,這樣的詞就屬于邏輯詞匯中的并列結構連接詞。

  那么在雅思閱讀中??嫉倪壿嬤B接詞都有哪些呢?我們一起來總結下,方便大家下去記憶學習:

  ??嫉牟⒘薪Y構連接詞還有:and, rather than, not only, but also, similarly, in the same way, as well as, from...to...等;因果關系連接詞有:because, reason, as a result, result in/from, due to, thanks to, so, since, for等;轉折關系連接詞:but, however, while, yet,in fact, on the one hand,...on the other hand...等;讓步關系連接詞:even if/though, despite, in spite of, although等;總結關系的連接詞:in a word, in brief, on the whole, in general等。遞進關系的連接詞:what more, moreover, furthermore,again, then, and then,also, another等。

  在平日學習中,幾乎所有的老師都在講“關鍵詞”,但很多同學在實戰中仍然出現關鍵詞定位不準確的問題。究其原因,大多是因為我們在掌握了何為關鍵詞后,卻忽略了何種詞不能作為關鍵詞!那究竟什么樣的詞不能作為定位關鍵詞呢?我們一起來總結下:

  1. 文章主題詞。如劍7 Test1 Reading Passage1 原文題目 “Let’s go bats”中,bats這個詞就是文章主題詞,通篇文章都在講“bats”, 那這樣的詞是不能作為關鍵詞幫我們定位的,因為它在文中出現頻率太高,無法幫我們縮小尋找答案的范圍。

  2. 同一類型題目中頻繁出現的詞。如:在劍7 Test 2 Reading Passage3 是非判斷題中31~35 四個題目中,“MIRTR”(馬科特鄉村一體化交通項目)這個詞雖為大寫,屬于關鍵詞中的特殊詞匯,但由于它在是非判斷這一題型三個題目中都出現了,那這個時候這樣的詞也是不能再作為關鍵詞幫我們定位了。原因如1。

  3. 常用表達詞。如:The, other...

  4. 題目中抽象的單詞:如:description, development, importance...這樣詞都很抽象,且歸納性很強,所以也是不能做關鍵詞來定位的。

 

 

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