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備考資料

托福寫作之揭開高分作文的神秘面紗

摘要:很多學生在托福學習過程中都有這樣的感覺,其他的幾個方面在短期訓練中有所提高,唯獨寫作很難有個大的提高,尤其是基礎相對薄弱的同學,達到了15分之后,很難再提高到一個新的

  很多學生在托福學習過程中都有這樣的感覺,其他的幾個方面在短期訓練中有所提高,唯獨寫作很難有個大的提高,尤其是基礎相對薄弱的同學,達到了15分之后,很難再提高到一個新的高度了,一直在15分左右徘徊。

  要知道托福寫作考試中最主要考察大家的是什么,肯定很多同學會說是語法,詞匯或英語的運用能力等,不可否認,這些知識對托福寫作非常的關鍵,但最重要的是要寫出真正的英語,也就是說盡量少出現中式英語的東西。

  那如何能在短時間內避免出現中式英語的錯誤呢,最好的方法就是多收集這方面的材料,不要犯類似的錯誤。以下是我在授課當中發現一些同學在寫作中經常容易犯的一些錯誤,希望對大家能有所幫助。

  1. 概念的錯誤

  在寫作中,有類詞語表面上看似乎是對的,但實際上卻沒有表達出你想要表達的意思,有時恰恰適得其反。用這類詞語寫成的英語句子常常引起誤解。

 ?、?(誤)When we go into society after graduation, we will encounter many difficulties.

  (正)When we start to work after graduation, we will encounter many difficulties.

  “go into society”沒有漢語“進入社會”的含義。在西方,它是指一個人到一定的年齡可以開始社會交往,如結交異性朋友,進入某些社交或公共場所等。而漢語“進入社會”一般指學生中學或大學畢業后參加工作。

 ?、?(誤)Left alone in the jungle at night ,she felt very dangerous.

  (正)Left alone in the jungle at night, she felt t hat she was in great danger.

  “dangerous”與作者要表達的意思完全相反。說某人dangerous,實際上是說他在某一方面對某人構成危脅,而不是處于危險的境地。這個詞用錯,意思就完全變了。原意是“她”感到處于危險中。

  2、搭配不當

  用詞搭配是我國學生學英語最感棘手的地方,在托福寫作中,這種錯誤也是經常出現的,所以希望大家引起重視,因為中文里的某些詞語在不同的語境里,英語有不同的說法,而這些說法是約定俗成的,完全是習慣用法所致,我們稍有不慎,便會犯錯。

 ?、?(誤)At college, we should learn as much knowledge as possible so t hat we can be well prepared for our future career.

  (正)At college, we should acquire as much knowledge as possible so t hat we can be well prepared for our future career.

  “學習知識”是學生寫作時經常用到的詞組,但不少學生都寫成learn knowledge,實際上knowledge是不能與learn搭配的,只能與acquire, obtain,absorb,accumulate ,develop,advance,gain,broaden ,enlarge,impart,derive ,deepen, brush up, digest 等詞搭配使用。

 ?、?(誤)In July, they will take part in the final term examinations.

  (正)In July, they will take t he final term examinations.

  “examination”或“test”不能與“take part in”搭配使用,但可以和attend, have, sit for, conduct, enter for, get through, pass, fail等詞語用在一起。

  3、 用詞累贅

  由于對某些詞和詞組的意思缺乏真正的理解或把要表達的意思先用中文想好,然后逐字翻譯成英語,造成累贅。例如:

 ?、?誤)In my opinion, I think t he production and sale of fake commodities should be banned.

  (正)I think t he production and sale of fake commodities should be banned.

  in my opinion與I think意思完全相同,可以刪去其中的一個。

 ?、?(誤)Scientists are trying to find a solution to solve t he problem of energy shortage .

  (正)Scientist s are trying to find a solution to t he problem of energy shortage.

  一個詞與它的派生詞一起出現,造成意思重復,給人以累贅的感覺,改正后的句子變得簡潔多了。

 ?、?(誤)Waste gas is t he main cause which leads to air pollution .

  (正)Waste gas is t he main cause of air pollution.

  cause和lead to都表原因,同時使用造成意思重復。

  4、逗號連接錯誤。

  我們學生在英語寫作中常常單獨使用逗號而不用句號、分號、冒號或連結詞來連接兩個或幾個獨立的分句。例如:

 ?、?(誤)The weather was fine, we decided to climb t he mountain.

  (正)As the weather was fine, we decided to climb t he mountain.

 ?、?(誤)The prospects are bright, the road has twists and turns.

  (正)While t he prospects are bright, the road has twists and turns.

  上面兩個標有誤的句子在語法上沒有錯誤,它錯就錯在逗號的使用不當。錯誤的根源是學生受漢語寫作習慣的影響,把漢語逗號的作用等同于英語逗號的作用。在漢語中,逗號可以單獨使用在并列分句之間。

  1)變成兩個簡單句:

  The wind was blowing very hard. They could not go boating on t he lake.

  (2)變成并列句,用逗號加并列連接:

  The wind was blowing very hard they could not go boating on t he lake.

  (3)變成并列句,用分號連接:

  The wind was blowing very hard; could not go boating on t he lake.

  (4)變成并列句,用分號加連接性副連接:

  The wind was blowing very hard , therefore, they could not go boating on lake.

  (5)變成并列句,有時也可以用冒號接,這時第二個分句解釋說明第一個分句

  They could not go boating on the lake; the wind was blowing very hard.

  (6)變成復合句:

  As the wind was blowing very hard they could not go boating on t he lake.

  (7)用獨立主格結構改寫句子:

  The wind blowing very hard, they could not go boating on t he lake.

 

 

 

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