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備考資料

托福寫作高分之如何掌控文章結構

摘要:通常情況下,托福獨立寫作推薦五段三點式文章結構。即Introduction 一段,Body三段,和Conclusion一段。一般第一段會用2-4句話陳述自己的觀點,大約60字左右。

通常情況下,托福獨立寫作推薦五段三點式文章結構。即Introduction 一段,Body三段,和Conclusion一段。一般第一段會用2-4句話陳述自己的觀點,大約60字左右。第2到4段從三個方面論述自己的觀點,每段約100字。結尾段用1-3句話總結自己的觀點,大約40個字。那么如何具體規劃每一個段落呢?

開頭段主要用以下幾種方法來組織,即背景法 (Background),爭議法(Controversy),提問法(Question),故事法(Story)和引言法(Quotation)。

以背景法為例。背景法一般會提出一種普遍的或值得關注的現象作為背景或者是由遠到近,由大到小地談論緊扣論題的社會觀點作為背景。

背景法開頭段的結構通常如下:背景(1-3句)+論題+反方觀點+(反方理由)+過度+(正方觀點)+作者的觀點+作者的理由。例:Technology makes people's lives more complicated. 題目涉及到了現今社會比較熱門的話題---科技。

這樣,我們就可以以這種社會比較關注的現象作為我們作文的開頭背景。因此這個題目的首段就可以這樣開始:Technology has had tremendous impacts on every aspect of modern life. However, people are having conflicting opinions about whether it has made people's lives more complicated or not. I believe technology has by and large made our lives more convenient。第一句話就是一句緊貼社會的背景,這樣寫不但很容易打開考生自己的思路,抓住作文的焦點,還能引起考官的共鳴。中間段落中間段落的文章結構通常如下:Transitional words + topic sentence + development。如果考生在平時能熟練運用這樣的一個結構來展開作文,那么考場上就會憑借這份思維定勢來幫助自己抓住每一分。

中間三個段落都可以套用這種模式。Transitional words主要有以下三種,即表順序:firstly, secondly, finally (last but not least);表并列:besides, in addition;表對比:in contrast, in comparison。這些銜接詞會讓文章看起來脈絡清晰,組織嚴密,也就做到了評分標準中的"well-organized"一條。主題句,顧名思義,向考官展示的是考生作文的主要意旨所以它在中間段落中的作用是至關重要的。通常主題句應該注意一下幾點:

1.主題句必須是陳述句。有的考生想在寫作中創新,于是采用反問句或者其他看似多樣化的題目,然而這種多樣性帶來的后果是給考官觀點不明確的印象,很自然地會影響到分數。

2.必須表明觀點。如果考生把一句無關痛癢的話放在主題句的位置上,很顯然無法表明自身觀點。比如像"今天是晴天"這樣的話沒有表明觀點;然而"今天是個好天氣"就包含一種感情色彩在里面,給人一種立場明確的感覺??忌鷳撉杏洠簺]有反駁余地的就不可以作為主題句。

3.態度必須堅決,但是不能極端。

4.每段必須有主題句,沒有主題就會浪費考官的時間去幫你總結主題,然而繁忙的考官是不會那么善良地去分析你的題目來抓取你的觀點的。

當然,如果考生能把以上幾點托福寫作技巧全部掌握,那么我們的托福寫作構思就是比較成功了。

接下來我們以一道托福真題給大家詳細分析一下:

托福寫作真題:Agree or disagree: spending too much time on watching sports on TV and following your favorite team would have a bad effect on your life.

題型分類:現象證明

論證角度:拆分(家庭、健康)

觀點選擇:讓步

開頭:同意過多時間看體育節目和關注體育隊會影響生活(話題引入+他人觀點+明確立場+過渡)

As always, sport is one of the few things that is extremely popular among people of all ages and all walks of life. A great many people spend a large amount of time watching sports on TV and collecting information about their favorite sports teams. This phenomenon gives rise to a grave concern about whether excessive focus on sports would bring a bad effect on life. As far as I am concerned, the answer to the question above is affirmative. My viewpoint can be supported by the following cases. (89字)

中間段1:影響家庭生活。(主題句+說理論證+細節例子)

Firstly, too much time on sports is detrimental to family harmony. It is because family should be a place where members need to care about each other by listening, talking and offering helps, but the obsession with sports would definitely deprive people of the “quality time” that belongs to family members. Imagine such a scene: a wife wants to ask advice about changing jobs from her husband, but the husband seems like indifferent and aloof. Later, the wife finds out that her husband has his mind so stuffed with football matches that there is no room left for listening to his wife’s inner voice. (104字)

中間段2:影響身體。(主題句+說理論證+細節例子)

Secondly, physical health would be negatively affected by excessive attention to sports on TV as well as sports teams. Fascination with something often comes at a cost. People go after sports stars and critical sporting events at the sacrifice of losing opportunities to rest or exercise. For example, I have a neighbor who is a maniac football fan. During the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, he stayed up every night watching the games because of the time difference. Inadequate sleep and great pressure of work caused his health to suffer and he developed serious problems with his heart.(99字)

讓步段:誠然,看體育比賽和關注球隊也有好的一方面,比如增加社交技能,豐富業余時間等等。但是,我們一定要把時間控制好,安排好,切不可過度沉迷,否則會出現上述的情況。(承認漏洞+堵漏)

But on the other hand, there are indeed some benefits that watching sports and following favorite teams bring to people. For instance, in social occasions, people do need a couple of common topics to start up conversation or strengthen mutual understandings. Besides, sports can be a nice choice to enrich our spare time. However, if we fail to manage our time and let our interests uncontrollably occupy the time to work, exercise and communicate with family, undesirable consequences would occur. (79字)

結尾:重申觀點,歸納理由/升華主題。

From what has been discussed above, we can safely draw a conclusion that too much time on sports on TV and following sports teams do have bad influence on our lives. There is an ancient Chinese wisdom that reads: “Things would turn for the worse if they go extreme.” Having a hobby is a good thing, but if we do not strike a balance between it and our lives, it would become an obstacle. (74字)

想了解更多托福相關信息,歡迎咨詢優擇教育官網客服或撥打咨詢熱線:400-0341-885,也可以加入優擇托福QQ群:365589895,我們有專業托福名師團隊對提出的問題進行一一解答,為您提供最優質的服務。

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